reply to two student post with at least 150 words each.


  • How does antimicrobial resistance happen? What is the process?
  • What can you personally do to slow the rate of antimicrobial resistance?

Choose a disease that shows antimicrobial resistance from this list and give a background to the resistance and discuss future concern:

  • MRSA
  • Bacterial Meningitis
  • Influenza (the Flu)

STUDENT 1 (jessica): Per the Centers for Disease and Control Prevention CDC “antibiotic / antimicrobial resistance is the ability of microbes to resist the effects of drugs – that is, the germs are not killed, and their growth is not stopped.” For example, if this process occurs when bacteria that is natural occurring on human-skin (human body largest tissue) is aggravated or disturbed by a wound or surgery incision. At this point these natural occurring bacteria that is there to protect our body from having other bacteria attacking us, develops into an infection that can result in serious medical conditions. The process of antimicrobial resistance happens by or is categorize by two processes. Evolution with Vertical Transmission and Evolution with Horizontal Transfer.

“Evolution with vertical transmission. In most familiar organisms, new gene variants arise in a population through random mutation — that is, one individual experiences a genetic mutation and if that mutation ups the individual’s ability to survive and reproduce, it is favored by natural selection. Mutant gene variants are passed from parent to offspring, and advantageous mutations spread through future generations in that way.” (Superbug, super-fast evolution 2008)

“Evolution with horizontal transfer. (……..) bacteria acquire genetic variation through random mutation, but, unlike humans or oak trees, they also regularly get new gene variants through the process of horizontal transfer — that is, they can pass DNA back and forth to one another directly.” (Superbug, super-fast evolution 2008)

Antibiotics work by attacking components in the bacteria cell-wall to enter it and eventually “bursting the cell” like white blood cells. What we do by taking indiscriminate quantities of antibiotics by either route, is help the bacteria pump out small amounts of toxins out of itself through the Efflux Pump. Antibiotics can cause mutations in genes that can pass it onto their offspring and develop resistance to that antibiotic. When a person uses antimicrobial hand soaps and hand sanitizers is helping the bacteria by exposing it to small but frequent amounts of these antibiotics We can slow down the rate of antimicrobial resistance by reducing the time and amount of antibiotic intake. Using mechanical means to kill bacteria in our body like soap and water for hand washing.

An example that shows antimicrobial resistance is MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). Widely known in hospitals and households around the U.S. Bacteria have evolved resistance to antibiotics. It is a constant exchange of genes, mutations and variables that bacteria performs through natural selection. If bacteria are to survive under exposure to toxins like antibiotics, it will modify or “mutate” to survive in those conditions.

I am very familiar with this condition. My oldest son suffers from MRSA and his first episode was at the age of 3. Toddlers are often prescribed amoxicillin for up to two weeks for common ear and throat infections. Why? The medication is diluted and is given in small amounts. Prescribed drugs get secreted onto the skin and may contribute to bacterial resistance. Collateral damage occurs. The S. aureus bacteria is natural occurring and lives in human-body skin. If the skin is punctured, scratched, burn, etc. the bacteria can enter it and cause a serious infection. In my son’s case, he developed a serious skin infection on his entire body. Consequently, he needed stronger antibiotics to control s. aureus from developing into septicemia. Now what we are not certain is if his skin inhabitants s. aureus built resistance to more antibiotics.

Works Cited

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention- Antimicrobial Resistance. September 08, 2015 Retrieved February 20, 2017, from

“Superbug, super-fast evolution.” Superbug, super-fast evolution. N.p., n.d. Retrieved, 20 February 20, 2017, from

STUDENT 2 (anothony): In a recent study done by the Centers for Disease Control and Presentation (CDC). Research show that influenza is continuously fluctuating in most flu season. Per the CDC influenza virus continues to produce a facsimile of itself during the flu months in which influenza drug become less resistance (CDC). Each year more people are being affected by influenza in the United States. This is an outbreak that affects the entire world. With or without proper medication this virus has its way of multiplying and forming new viruses which can become resistance to antiviral medication.

This process happens when bacteria fluctuate in some cases in which the drug can no longer fight the outcome of influenza. When influenza viruses become resistance to the generic medication it can spread from one individual to another by sneezing or coughing on another person. Some medication destroys or prevents the development of bacteria. In some cases, one or more of the bacteria may survive on the dosage of antibiotic, in which allows the bacteria to multiply and form new ones. Consequently, bacteria that were resistible to an antibiotic that can sometimes become resistance throughout mutation by obtaining microorganism of its DNA (

Personally, to slow down the rate of antimicrobial resistance. I would encourage infected individuals to stay home when suffering from the flu. Too, encourage people to cover their mouth or use the elbow cough method, wash hand after using the bathroom, use hand sanitizer, disinfect common surfaces, and encourage people to get their yearly flu vaccine. The yearly flu vaccine can be done at your local pharmacy or hospital.


Influenza Antiviral Drug Resistance. (2017, January 26). Retrieved February 20, 2017, from…

Why are bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics? (n.d.). Retrieved February 20, 2017, from…

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